Mark’s car was rear ended in 2012. Mark suffered back pain after the accident that did not improve after over 2 years. Mark’s MRI revealed injuries to the L4/5 and L5/S1 discs, as well as stenosis (tightening of the spinal canal) at L4/5. Diagnostic testing at the Los Angeles Minimally Invasive Spine Institute confirmed injuries to the L4/5 and L5/S1 discs. In February 2015 Mark underwent endoscopic discectomy at L4/5 and L5/S1 as well as endoscopic decompression for treatment of stenosis. At followup Mark’s pain had been reduced by 89%.